A Comprehensive Guide to Insomnia: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

A Comprehensive Guide to Insomnia: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Are you suffering from acute insomnia?

Insomnia affects millions of Americans each year. The causes of insomnia vary depending on the person's lifestyle, habits, medications, and other factors. Some people suffer from stress or anxiety, while others experience pain or other health problems. Certain medicines or medical conditions can also cause insomnia.

This guide covers everything you need to know about insomnia. From the symptoms to the treatments, this guide has got you covered. 

What is insomnia?

Insomnia is defined as difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep. It may occur for various reasons. These include:

  • Anxiety
  • Pain
  • Medication side effects
  • Medical conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, thyroid dysfunction, etc.

The most common cause of insomnia is stress. Stress can affect your ability to fall asleep and stay asleep. It can lead to poor quality sleep, which results in daytime fatigue.

Symptoms of insomnia

If you are experiencing insomnia, you may notice some of these symptoms:

  • Difficulty sleeping at night
  • Waking up too early in the morning
  • Feeling tired during the day
  • Having trouble concentrating
  • Trouble falling asleep again after waking up
  • Not being able to remember things from the previous day

These symptoms may indicate an underlying condition that needs treatment. However, if you have had these symptoms for more than two weeks, you are dealing with chronic insomnia.

Symptoms of insomnia

Causes of insomnia

Many different factors contribute to insomnia (onset insomnia). They can range from psychological issues to physical ones. Here are some of the most common causes of insomnia:

  • Sleep apnea – A disorder where breathing repeatedly stops during sleep. It leads to interrupted sleep.
  • Depression – Depression can make it difficult to fall asleep and maintain sleep.
  • Anxiety – Anxiety can disrupt sleep patterns. Anxious people tend to wake up frequently during the night.
  • Chronic pain – Chronic pain can interfere with sleep.
  • Diabetes – Diabetics often struggle to fall asleep because their blood sugar levels fluctuate throughout the night.
  • Heart disease – Heart problems can result in an irregular heartbeat, making it hard to fall asleep.
  • Thyroid problems – Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can cause disturbed sleep.
  • Stroke – After a stroke, patients may feel numbness and tingling in their arms and legs. It can prevent them from falling asleep.
  • Parkinson’s Disease – Patients with Parkinson’s disease often have tremors that disturb sleep.
  • Head injury – Concussions can leave patients feeling dazed and confused. This can make it harder to fall asleep.

Medications that can cause insomnia

Some medications can cause insomnia. Examples include:

  • Antidepressants – These drugs help treat depression, but they can sometimes cause insomnia.
  • Opioids – These drugs relieve pain, but they can cause insomnia when taken in high doses.
  • Benzodiazepines – These drugs relax muscles and reduce anxiety. But they can cause insomnia when used long-term.
  • Alcohol consumption – Drinking alcohol before bedtime increases the likelihood of insomnia.
  • Smoking – Cigarette

What are the risk factors for Insomnia?

Other factors increase your chances of devouring stress and experiencing eloping insomnia. Some of these factors include:

  • Age – When As we age, our bodies change. Our sleep cycles become shorter and less restful. People over 60 yea– Stress s old typically get only 6 hours of sleep per night.
  • Gender – Women usually need 30 minutes longer than men to fall asleep. Insomnia is more frequent in women than men.
  • Stress – The more stressed you are, the more likely you will experience insomnia.
  • Diet – Eating too much or not enough can affect your sleeping pattern. For example, eating large meals late in the day can keep you awake later.
  • Exercise – If you exercise excessively, you may get tired earlier in the evening.
  • Medication – Certain medications can cause insomnia.
  • Genetics – Your family history can play a part in whether or not you have insomnia.

What are the different stages of Insomnia?

Insomnia is a condition where a person has trouble falling asleep or staying asleep. It affects approximately one-third of all adults.

The most common type of insomnia is called "primary insomnia." Primary insomnia occurs when a person does not have any underlying medical problem that would explain their inability to sleep.

Secondary insomnia occurs when someone already has a medical condition that prevents them from sleeping well.

Common examples include:

  • Sleep apnea – People who snore loudly or stop breathing during sleep are more likely to wake up frequently.
  • Depression – People who are depressed tend to be restless and agitated during the night. They often feel anxious and unable to fall asleep.
  • Anxiety disorders – People with anxiety disorders such as panic disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often have difficulty falling asleep.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome – People who have chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) often have trouble falling asleep because their minds are racing.
  • Fibromyalgia – This disease causes widespread muscle aches and pains. People with fibromyalgia also report feeling exhausted and tired.
  • Narcolepsy – People who have narcolepsy have uncontrollable episodes of sudden sleep attacks. During these attacks, they lose consciousness for several seconds at a time.
  • Menopause – Many women go through menopause without having any symptoms. However, some women begin experiencing hot flashes and night sweats. These changes can disrupt standard sleep patterns.
  • Thyroid problems – A thyroid gland that produces excessive hormones can lead to insomnia.
  • Diabetes – People who have diabetes are more prone to develop insomnia (maintenance insomnia).
  • Parkinson's Disease – People who have Parkinson's disease often have trouble falling asleep due to tremors and muscle stiffness.
  • Multiple sclerosis – People with multiple sclerosis often have trouble falling asleep.
  • Stroke – People who have had a stroke are more likely to experience insomnia.
different stages of Insomnia

    How do I know if I am suffering from Insomnia?

    If you are experiencing insomnia (childhood insomnia), it will probably show up in different ways. Here are some of the signs and symptoms of insomnia:

    • You wake up early in the morning.
    • You cannot get back to sleep after waking up.
    • You frequently awaken during the night.
    • You have trouble falling asleep. You may find yourself lying awake in bed for hours before finally drifting off.
    • You have trouble getting to sleep on weekends.
    • You have been known to nap during the day.
    • You take longer than usual to fall asleep at night.
    • Your sleep pattern varies from week to week.
    • You have difficulty concentrating at work or school.

    What are the consequences of Insomnia?

    Insomnia can cause serious health problems over time. Some people who have insomnia complain about headaches, irritability, depression, and other physical ailments.

    Different people have more severe problems. For example, people with untreated insomnia are at greater risk of heart attack or stroke. Studies have shown that insomnia people are twice as likely to die prematurely as those who don't.

    Insomnia is also linked to higher rates of obesity and diabetes. It's not clear exactly how insomnia leads to weight gain and diabetes. But one theory suggests that when we're stressed out, our bodies produce extra cortisol, which makes us crave sugar. Cortisol levels tend to be high in people who have insomnia.

    In addition to the health risks associated with insomnia, there are financial costs too. According to the National Sleep Foundation, Americans spend $63 billion on sleeping pills. 

    The average person takes three prescription drugs to help them sleep. If you stop taking your medications, you could spend even more money because you'll need to buy new prescriptions.

    Insomnia affects everyone differently. Many things can contribute to insomnia, including stress, anxiety, depression, certain medical conditions, and lifestyle factors such as caffeine consumption, alcohol use, smoking, and lack of exercise.

    The good news is that most people can improve their sleep patterns without medication. 

    So what should you do if you think you might have insomnia?

    First, talk to your doctor. They can give you advice about whether you should see a psychiatrist or psychologist. These professionals can help you learn better sleep habits. 

    They can also prescribe medications or recommend non-prescription treatments like relaxation techniques and cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Second, make sure you're getting enough restful sleep. Try to go to bed by 10 p.m. and get up between 6 a.m. and 7 a.m. It will ensure that you get seven to eight hours of uninterrupted sleep every night. 

    Don't stay up late watching television or surfing the Internet. And try to avoid napping during the day.

    Third, reduce any sources of stress in your life. Anxiety can disrupt your sleep cycle. When you're anxious or worried, your body produces adrenaline which causes your blood pressure to rise. 

    Adrenaline also increases your heart rate and breathing, so it helps you wake up. However, this increase in adrenaline has the opposite effect after midnight. It keeps you awake instead of helping you drift off into slumber.

    Fourth, eat well. A healthy diet full of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and low-fat dairy products may help prevent insomnia. Also, limit caffeine intake before bedtime. 

    Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system and can keep you awake for extended periods.

    Finally, relax. Take some deep breaths and focus on relaxing your muscles. You can practice this technique anytime you feel tense. Another way to calm yourself down is to listen to soothing music.

    The connection between insomnia and ageing:

    Sleep disorders are common among older adults. They affect nearly half of all people over 65 years old. 

    Older adults often experience problems falling asleep due to physical changes in their bodies. For example, they may have trouble turning off their minds and sleeping.

    In addition, older adults tend to be less active than younger adults. As a result, they don't burn as much energy while sleeping. It means that they need to consume more calories than younger adults to maintain their weight.

    This extra calorie consumption can cause an imbalance in hormones. Hormones regulate metabolism and appetite. An imbalance in these hormones can lead to weight gain. Overweight people are at greater risk of developing sleep disorders.

    In addition, hormone levels change with age. The stories of growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and melatonin decrease as we grow older. All three of these hormones play essential roles in regulating our sleep cycles.

    As a result, older adults may find it harder to fall asleep and remain asleep throughout the night.

     insomnia and ageing

    Is there any treatment for Insomnia?

    There are several types of treatments available for those who have insomnia. Some are natural remedies. Others involve prescription drugs. Here's what you can do if you want to treat insomnia naturally. 

    Relaxation Techniques

    Relaxation techniques include meditation, yoga, tai chi, progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, massage therapy, and biofeedback. These methods teach us how to control and release tension. They are accommodating when combined with other treatments.


    Exercise improves overall health. It boosts energy, relieves depression, reduces anxiety, and improves sleep quality (sleep better). If you exercise regularly, you'll get better sleep because you will not be tired during the day.

    Avoid Alcohol

    Alcohol affects sleep by causing drowsiness. It also makes it challenging to stay alert during the daytime. Drinking alcohol late at night can make it hard to fall asleep.

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